India from a historical perspective

Indian National Flag Designer-Pingali Venkayya



Our Prime Minister and President hoist the National Flag every year on Independence Day, the 15th of August and on Republic day the January 26th every year respectively. People wave our National Flag enthusiastically on these days and also when our sportspersons win any major international tournament such as Cricket World Cup or Olympics medal. How many of us know Pingali Venkayya as the person who designed our National Flag and that he was a prolific writer and a great patriot.

Pingali Venkayya was born on 2nd August 1876 in Bhatlapenumuru near Machilipatnam in Andhra Pradesh. His parents are Hanumantharayadu and Venkataratnamma. He went to Colombo in Ceylon for studying Senior Cambridge after passing high school. He worked as Railway Guard and later in a Government Office as clerk in Bellary. He was not content with the job. He decided to study further. He joined Anglo- Vedic College in Lahore and learnt Urdu and Japanese.

Venkayya was an accomplished person in many fields. He had an immense knowledge in geology. He obtained Ph.d in geology in his later years. He was an authority in Agriculture. He utilized his knowledge and spent most of his fortune in experimenting with new crops in Andhra Pradesh. He even came up with a special type of cotton called Cambodia cotton. British rulers were even impressed with his knowledge in this field. He was bestowed honorary membership of Royal Agriculture Society of Britain. He was also an expert in Diamond mining. He was popularly known in the Diamond field as ‘Diamond Venkayya.’

 He served in the British Army during Anglo- Boer wars in South Africa. He came in contact with Mahatma Gandhi there. He was very much influenced by Mahatma’s ideology. He went back to his roots and focussed his energy in developing a National School at Machilipatnam. He taught his students basics in military training, horse riding and history. He also taught basics in Agriculture. He taught the students about soil, crops and their relationship with nature. In 1914 he turned liberal and named his Agricultural land as estate and called it Swetchhapuram in order to reflect a deep commitment to his liberal values.

Venkayya suggested that India should have a flag of its own during the meeting of National conference of Indian National Congress held at Kakinada, Andhra Pradesh on 31st March 1921 and 1st April 1921. Mahatma Gandhi was very much impressed with his suggestion. Mahatma asked Sri Venkayya to come up with the design of National Flag. Pingali Venkayya designed the flag in two colours. They were saffron and green representing two major religions in India. Gandhiji liked it. Mahatma insisted on adding a white strip to the flag representing the other minorities. Hansraj Jalandhar suggested Charkha ( A wheel with a spindle and thread for weaving cloth) in the middle to signify progress and common man. The flag was not officially accepted. This flag was hoisted by National Congress during all Congress sessions since it was liked by Mahatma.  

The flag was finally accepted as National Flag after passing a resolution during National Congress conference in Karachi in 1931. Dharma Chakra the emblem of Emperor Ashoka replaced Charkha at the centre of the flag. The saffron colour represents courage, white colour represents truth and peace and green colour represents faith and Prosperity.

Dr.Sarvepally Radhakrishnan remarked that the National Flag ought to control the principle of all those who worked under it.

Sri Pingali Venkayya had to leave for heavenly abode on 4th July 1963. He spent rest of his life in poverty till his death and remained incognito. His daughter was awarded pension only few years back by the Government. It seems no memorial is built even in his Machilipatnam town. Even his house was demolished perhaps as a tribute to him.

 Dr.Sarvepally Radhakrishnan interpreted the three colours of the National Flag beautifully. According to him Saffron denoted renunciation or Political Leaders disinterest in materialistic gains in life. White denotes enlightment or lighting the path to guide our conduct. Green symbolized our relation with the soil. It means that our relation with the plant life on which all other life depends. Ashok Wheel represents Dharma, Law of Land.

I leave to the wisdom of readers whether Dr.Sarvepally Radhakrishnan’s interpretation is relevant even today after all these endless mess ever since we got our Independence and also for the fact that the way these Political Leaders ignored a Truly Remarkable Patriot

Flag code: After 64 years, the citizens of India are free to fly the Indian National Flag over their homes, offices and factories on any day. On 26th January 2002, the flag code was changed, giving Indians the freedom to proudly display the national flag anywhere and anytime. However, there are still some rules and regulations upon how to fly the flag, based on the 26th January 2002 legislation, which should be followed by the all Indian citizens. These rules and regulation includes certain dos and don’ts, which have been explained below.

India Flag Animated gifs 


  • The National Flag may be hoisted in educational institutions (schools, colleges, sports camps, scout camps, etc.) to inspire respect for the Flag. An oath of allegiance has been included in the flag hoisting in schools.
  • A member of public, a private organization or an educational institution may hoist/display the National Flag on all days and occasions, ceremonial or otherwise, consistent with the dignity and honor of the National Flag.
  • Section 2 of the new code accepts the right of all private citizens to fly the flag on their premises.


  • The flag cannot be used for communal gains, drapery, or clothes. As far as possible, it should be flown from sunrise to sunset, irrespective of the weather.
  • The flag cannot be intentionally allowed to touch the ground or the floor or trail in water. It cannot be draped over the hood, top, and sides or back of vehicles, trains, boats or aircraft.
  • No other flag or bunting can be placed higher than the flag. Also, no object, including flowers or garlands or emblems, can be placed on or above the flag. The tricolor cannot be used as a festoon, rosette or bunting. 

Indian Joan of Arc-Veera Mangai Velunachiyar


Veera Mangai Velunachiyar was one of the queens in the 18th century in South India. She rebelled against the British Empire and fought for the freedom of India.  She was born in 1730 AD to the Mannar Sellamuthu Sethupathy and to Rani Sakandhimuthal of  Ramnad Kingdom.  She was the only daughter of this Royal family. The Royal couple had no male heir.  The royal family brought up the Princess, Velunachiyar, like  Prince of Ramnad due to this reason. She was trained in the skills of using weapons and also in martial arts like Valari, stick fighting  etc. She learnt horse riding and archery earlier. The Royal couple had engaged teachers to teach her many languages like French, English and Urdu. Thus this young brave Princess had excellent training in all war techniques. She was a scholar in many languages and was ready to rule the Ramnad Kingdom . She married Sivagangai Mannar Muthuvaduganathar at the age of sixteen.  In the year 1772 , the English invaded her kingdom . Velu Nachiyar heard that her husband Raja Muthu Vaduganathar and her daughter young Princess Gowri Nachiyar were killed in Kalaiyar Koil war. This war was held in Kalaiyar Koil palace. British troops attacked the palace under the command of Lt.Col. Bon Jour . She was very much worried and wanted to take revenge. Dalavay Thandavaraya Pillai and Maruthu brothers sustained injuries. They promised to recapture the samasthan to punish the English. Dalavay Thandavaraya Pillai, an incredible and distinguished person was the most powerful administer in Sivagangai samsthanam.  Thandavaraya Pillai, the loyalist served (1700-1773) as Palavay and also as Pirathani under the three rulers of Sivagangai samsthanam. He was responsible for the development of Sivagangai samsthanam . At first he served the King Sasivarna Periya Udaiya Thevar during 1730-1750. Later he served under Muthu Vaduganatha Thevar, the King during 1750-1772 . He also served as *Pirathani to the queen Rani Velu Nachiyar.Here Dalavay means  military chief and the Pirathani means  chief minister. Pirathani was responsible for  the improvement of Foreign affairs. Thus the two charges were the most important and also  powerful .

(Thandavaraya Pillai was the son of Kathavaraya Pillai who was an accountant and also as Karvar, (administer) in this samsthan.He rendered his service with loyalty from the beginning of this samsthanam. He administered well and helped in the development. The King Udaiya Thevar was very much pleased because of his good administration and granted him his hereditary management. It shows the significance of loyalty of Dalavay Thandavaraya Pillai.   He advised Veera Mangal Velunachiar to move to different places often in order to avoid British invaders . Meanwhile Dalavay Thandavarayan Pillai wrote a letter to Sultan Hyder Ali on behalf of Velu Nachiyar to provide 5000 infantry and 5000 cavalry to defeat the British army. But unfortunately he passed away due to old age. She decided to meet Hyder Ali after the demise of Dalavay Thandavarayan Pillai  at  Mysore with the help of his son. She could explain in detail in Urdu all her problems with East India Company. She explained him her strong opposition of British regime. Hyder Ali was very much pleased and promised to help her in this conflict… He accepted her request with sympathy and provided the necessary military assistance. He orderd Syed Karki of Dindigul fort gladar to provide the required military equipments to Rani Velu Nachiyar. He released 5000 infantry and 5000 cavalry to Rani Velu Nachiyar immediately. Her troops advanced to Sivaganga with the help provided by Maruthu brothers. The Nawab of Arcot put so many hindrances to avoid the advancement of Rani Velu Nachiyar’s combined troops. The queen and Maruthu brothers overcame all hurdles. They geared up the troops and entered Sivaganga. She defeated the Nawab of Arcot and took him as a captivator. She re-captured her Sivaganga samsthan with the help of Hyder Ali and crowned as queen of the Sivagangai seemai. Velu Nachiyar is only the first queen who raised the revolt  against the British emperor. According to historians. Prof.Sanjeevi  mentioned in his ‘ Maruthiruvar’ book that ‘ the bravery queen Velu Nachiyar raised revolt against English emperor and fought for the freedom of India 85 years before Jhansi Rani’s freedom struggle in North . Venkatam further stated that Velu Nachiyar is India’s Joan of Arc.

by sivashanmugam.referred books: The Madura country a manual..J.H.Nelson. The Sivaganga Zamindary..K.Annaswamy Aiyer.Maruthiruvar..Prof.Sanjeevi.Viduthalai porin vidi velligal… M.Balakrishnan..

Salt Satyagraha, the Dandi March on March 12, 1930


The Salt March to the remote sea side village of Dandi, about 320 km from Ahmedabad, and the civil disobedience campaign it launched was the greatest non violent battle by the history’s greatest non violent campaigner Mahatma Gandhi. Mahatma  himself saw this as the quintessence of his philosophy in action.

The Salt March is about a battle by an astute political campaigner to free his Country from the yoke of British colonialism. Here we have the skinny, scantily dressed 61- year-old Mahatma armed with nothing but a bamboo staff marching to the sea with a handful of followers, mostly young, in an attempt to liberate India.

The Salt March can be clearly visualized as Gandhi and his followers leaving his ashram on the banks of the Sabarmati river on the outskirts of Ahmedabad on March 12, 1930 and breaking the British salt laws about three weeks later at the seaside hamlet of Dandi. This launched a mass struggle that filled the prisons and shook the foundations of the British Empire.

But the Salt March was more than a mass political action. Gandhi saw the march as a pilgrimage, as a living sermon. It was not merely about throwing out the mighty British Empire but to demonstrate what an ideal non violent society should look like and how ideal lives should be lived 

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